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Давайте!!!! :roll:
А за тексты все одно спасибо!

_________________
Thathanka Sapa miyelo!


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на за что / токха шни .... :smile:


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:smile:


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Лакотский календарь:

JANUARY - MOON OF STRONG COLD/FROST IN THE TEEPEE/WOLVES RUN TOGETHER

FEBRUARY - RACCOON MOON/DARK RED CALVES

MARCH - MOON WHEN BUFFALO COWS DROP THEIR CALVES/OF THE SNOWBLIND/SORE EYE MOON

APRIL - MOON OF GREENING GRASS/RED GRASS APPEARING

MAY - MOON WHEN THE PONIES SHED

JUNE - MOON OF MAKING FAT/MOON WHEN GREEN GRASS IS
UP/STRAWBERRY MOON

JULY - MOON WHEN THE WILD CHERRIES ARE RIPE/RED CHERRIES/RED BLOOMING LILIES

AUGUST - MOON WHEN THE GEESE SHED THEIR FEATHERS/CHERRIES TURN BLACK

SEPTEMBER - MOON OF DRYING GRASS/WHEN CALVES GROW HAIR OR BLACK CALF/WHEN THE PLUMS ARE SCARLET

OCTOBER - MOON OF FALLING LEAVES/CHANGING SEASON

NOVEMBER - MOON OF THE FALLING LEAVES

DECEMBER - MOON OF POPPING TREES/WHEN DEER SHED THEIR
HORNS/BUFFALO COW'S FETUS IS GETTING LARGE


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Red Cloud, "I Was Born a Lakota"

К Красному Облаку, известному вождю Лакота существует очень разное отношение среди самих Лакота. Однако в Сообществе Красного Облака в Пайн Ридж его уважают. Красное Облако много сделал хорошего для своего народа, но белые антрополги и историки с лёгкой руки своего понимания, записали его в "предатели". Главным в этом явился Д.Хайд, который показал Красное Облако не как выдающегося индейца, а как корыстного белого чиновника. Белые очень любят искать символы, будь то политики или вожди, в независимости от реальных вещей, они превозносят их до идолов и ставят им памятники, рисуют иконы. Так было и с Неистовой Лошадью, как пример можно вспомнить его гигантскую скульптуру в Чёрных Холмах, высекая которую белый автор искренне думал, что делает пользу для народа Лакота.... Подобный символ - для белого человека.

Что касается Красного Облака, то его неуважают те, для которых истинный индеец, тот кто до конца бьётся с томагавком в руке и "улюлюкает". Кто-то скажет о сомнительных переговорах Красного Облака с правительством США и о ситуации со смертью Неистовой Лошади.... Но разве мы можем знать какова была в действительности ситуация в то время, когда почти всю инфомацию мы фактически имеем от белого человека с его европейским взглядом на мир и предвзятым отношением к индейцам?

Несмотря на всё это, ниже следующая его речь, записанная Уолкером, сказана им в конце его жизни для своего народа и наполнена мудростью, это хорошие слова!!!!
Она на английском, на русском она появится на "Семи Очагах".


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"I Was Born a Lakota." Red Cloud's Abdication Speech, July 4, 1903


My sun is set. My day is done. Darkness is stealing over me. Before I lie down to rise no more, I will speak to my people.

Hear me, my friends, for it is not the time for me to tell you a lie. The Great Spirit made us, the Indians, and gave us this land we live in. He gave us the buffalo, the antelope, and the deer for food and clothing. We moved on our hunting grounds from the Minnesota to the Platte and from the Mississippi to the great mountains. No one put bounds about us. We were free as the winds and like the eagle, heard no man's commands. We fought our enemies and feasted our friends. Our braves drove away all who would take our game. They captured women and horses from our foes. Our children were many and our herds were large. Our old men talked with spirits and made good medicine. Our young men herded the horses and made love to the girls. Where the tipi was, there we stayed and no house imprisoned us. No one said, "To this line is my land, to that is yours."
In this way our fathers lived and were happy. Then the white man came to our hunting grounds, a stranger. We gave him meat and presents and told him to go in peace. He looked on our women and stayed to live in our tipis. His fellows came to build their trails across our hunting grounds. With his trinkets and his beads he bought the girl I loved. He brought the mam wakan, the mysterious iron that shoots. He brought the mini wahan, the mysterious water that makes men foolish.
I said, "The white man is not a friend, let us kill him." Our chief, Bull Bear, made me ashamed before our people. For the white man he had a heart like a woman.
I was born a Lakota and I have lived a Lakota and I shall die a Lakota.42 Before the white man came to our country, the Lakotas were a free people. They made their own laws and governed themselves as it seemed good to them. Then they were independent and happy. Then they could choose their own friends and fight their enemies. Then men were brave and to be trusted.
The white man came and took our lands from us. They put [us] in bounds and made laws for us. We were not asked what laws would suit us. But the white men made the laws to suit themselves and they compel us to obey them. This is not good for an Indian.
The white men try to make the Indians white men also. It would be as reasonable and just to try to make the Indians' skin white as to try to make him act and think like a white man. But the white man has taken our territory and destroyed our game so we must eat the white man's food or die.
The president promised us. The commissioners he sent to us promised to clothe and feed us if we would let the white people have our lands and they promised to feed us and clothe us until we could feed ourselves. We, the older Indians, told the commissioners that we would fight for our horses and for women and that we could hunt for our food and clothing but that we could not dig the earth to make food and clothing grow from it.
We told them that the supernatural powers, Taku Wakan, had given to the Lakotas the buffalo for food and clothing.
We told them that where the buffalo ranged, that was our country. We told them that the country of the buffalo was the country of the Lakotas. We told them that the buffalo must have their country and the Lakotas must have the buffalo.

Now where the buffalo ranged there are wires on posts that mark the land where the white man labors and sweats to get food from the earth; and in the place of the buffalo there are cattle that must be cared for to keep them alive; and where the Lakota could ride as he wished from the rising to the setting of the sun for days and days on his own lands, now he must go on roads made by the white man; and when he crosses the bounds the white man has set about us, the white man says to us Indians, "You must not be on the lands that are not on the road."
They tell us that we are Indians and they are white men and that we must be treated different from the white man. This is true. But the white man should say how he should be treated and the Indian should say how he should be treated. It is not so. The white man says how the white man should be treated and the white man says how the Lakota shall be treated and the Lakota has nothing to say in this matter. The commissioners and the white people sent to us by the president tell us that the white people know what is best for us. How can this be? No white man was born an Indian, then how can he think as an Indian thinks?
The commissioners promised that our children would be educated so that they would be wise and think as the white people think. Many of our children have been in the schools but they were born of Indian parents and they think as their parents think.

Our children can not forget their own people, and when the older people tell them of the time when the Lakotas moved across the land as free as the winds and no one could say to them "go here or stay there"; of the times when men did not labor and sweat to stay in one place; of the times when to hunt the buffalo and keep the tipi was all the care there was; of the times when brave men could win respect and renown on the warpath—then they sing the Indian songs and would be as the Lakotas were and not as the white men are.
The priests and the ministers tell us that we lived wickedly when we lived before the white man came among us. Whose fault was this? We lived right as we were taught it was right. Shall we be punished for this?

I am not sure that what these people tell me is true. As a child I was taught the Supernatural Powers (Taku Wakan) were powerful and could do strange things; that I should placate them and win their favor; that they could help me or harm me; that they could be good friends or harmful enemies. I was taught that the Sun (Wi) was a Great Mystery (Wakan Tanka), that he was the Supreme Mystery (Iyotan Wakantu),*3 and that he was our [grand]father (Tunkansila), and my people addressed him as Father (Ate). This was taught me by the wise men (wicasa ksapa) and the shamans (wicasa wakan). They taught me that I could gain their favor by being kind to my people and brave before my enemies; by telling the truth and living straight; by fighting for my people and their hunting grounds. They taught me that Taku Skanskan (the supernatural patron of moving things) was Wakan Tanka; that Inyan (the supernatural patron of immovable things) was Wakan Tanka; that Wakinyan was Wakan Tanka; that Tatanka was wakan; that Anog Ite was wakan for evil; that Heyoka was wakan for evil; that Iktomi was wakan for evil.

These things were taught before the Sun Dance. The Lakotas believed them and they lived so as to win the favor of the Supernatural Powers (Taku Wakan). The shamans could heal the sick with the help of the Good Mysteries (Wakan Waste) and by driving away the Evil Mysteries (Wakan Sica). Two Legs (the mythical Bear) taught the Lakotas what medicines were good.
When the Lakotas belived these things they lived happy and they died satisfied. What more than this can that which the white man offers us give?
Taku Skanskan is familiar with my spirit (nagi) and when I die I will go with him. Then I will be with my forefathers. If this is not in the heaven of the white man, I shall be satisfied. Wi is my father. The Wakan Tanka of the white man has overcome him. But I shall remain true to him.
Shadows are long and dark before me. I shall soon lie down to rise no more. While my spirit is with my body the smoke of my breath shall be towards the Sun for he knows all things and knows that I am still true to him.

Red Cloud.


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Red Cloud - Oglala - 1900

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Дева Белой Бизоньей Телёнихи - история дара Святой Трубки для Лакота, версия Одинокого Человека.

Этот текст на английском из книги Денсмор "Музыка Титон Сиу".
Одинокий Человек (Isna'lawicha) (родился в 1850, участвовал в Литтл Бигхорн сражении, умер в апреле 1918), в 1912 году дал интервью Френсис Денсмор через переводчика Роберта Высокого Орла, сегодня его версия одна из самых старых, которых удалось записать.

Lakota story of the White Buffalo Calf Maiden (Ptehincalaskawin).

by Lone Man

In the olden times it was a general custom for the Sioux tribe to assemble in a body once at least during the year. This gathering took place usually about that time of midsummer when everything looked beautiful and everybody rejoiced to live to see nature at it's best-that was the season when the Sundance ceremony took place and vows were made and fufilled. Sometimes the tribal gathering took place in the Fall when the wild game was in the best condition, when wild fruits of all kinds were ripe, and when the leaves on the trees and plants were the brightest.

One reason the people gathered as they did was that the tribe as a whole might celebrate the victories, successes on the warpath, and other good fortunes which had occurred during the year while the bands were scattered and each band was acting somewhat independently. Another reason was that certain rules or laws were made by the head chiefs and other leaders of the tribe, by which each band of the tribe was governed. For instance, if a certain band got into trouble with some other tribe, as the Crows, the Sioux tribe as a whole should be notified. Or if an enemy or enemies came on their hunting grounds the tribe should be notified at once. In this way the Teton Sioux was protected as to it's territory and it's hunting grounds.

After these gatherings there was a scattering of the various bands. On one such occasion the Sans Arc band started toward the west. They were moving from place to place, expecting to find buffalo and other game which they would lay up for their winter supply, but they failed to find anything. A council was called and two young men were selected to go in quest of buffalo and other game. They started on foot. When they were out of sight they each went in a different direction, but met again at a place which they had agreed upon. While they were planning and planning what to do, there apeared from the west a solitary object advancing toward them. It did not look like a buffalo; it looked more like a human being than anything else. They could not make out what it was, but it was coming rapidly. Both considered themselves brave, so they concluded that they would face whatever it might be. They stood still and gazed at it very eagerly. At last they saw it was a beautiful young maiden. She wore a beautiful fringed buckskin dress, leggings, and moccasins. Her hair was hanging loose except at the left side, where was tied a tuft of shedded buffalo hair. In her right hand she carried a fan made of flat sage. Her face was painted with red verticle stripes. Not knowing what to do or say, they hesitated, saying nothing to her.

She spoke first, thus: "I am sent by the Buffalo tribe to visit the people you represent. You have been chosen to perform a difficult task. It is right that you should try to carry out the wishes of your people, and you must try to accomplish your purpose. Go home and tell the chief and headmen to put up a special loodge in the middle of the camp circle, with the door of the lodge and the entrance into the camp toward the direction where the sun rolls off the earth. Let them spread sage at the place of honor, and back of the fireplace let a small square place be prepared. Back of this and the sage let a certain frame, or rack, be made. Right in front of the rack a buffalo skull should be placed. I have something of importance to present to the tribe, which will have a great deal to do with their future welfare. I shall be in the camp about sunrise."

While she was thus speaking to the young men one of them had impure thoughts. A cloud came down an enveloped this young man. When the cloud left the earth the young man was left there-only a skeleton. The Maiden commanded the other young man to turn his back toward her and face in the direction of the camp, then to start for home. He was ordered not to look back.

When the young man came in sight of the camp he ran in a zigzag course, this being a signal required of such parties on returning home from a searching or scouting expedition. The people in the camp were on alret for the signal, and preparations were begun at once to escort the party home. Just outside the council lodge, in front of the door, an old man qualified to perform the ceremony was waiting anxiously for the party. He knelt in the direction of the coming of the party to receive the report of the expedition. A row of old men were kneeling behind him. The young man arrived at the lodge. Great curiosity was shown by the people on account of the missing member of the party. The report was made and the people received it with enthusiasm.

The special lodge was made, and the other requirements were carried out. The crier announced in the whole camp what was to take place on the following morning. Great preparations were made for the occasion. Early the next morning, at daybreak, men, women and children assembled around the special lodge. Young men who were known to bear unblemished characters were chosen to escort the Maiden into the camp. Promptly at sunrise she was in sight. All eyes were fixed on the Maiden. Slowly she walked into the camp. She was dressed as when she first appeared to the two young men except that instead of the sage fan she carried a pipe-the stem was carried with her right hand and the bowl with the left.

The chief, who was qualified and authorized to receive the guest in behalf of the Sioux tribe, sat outside, right in front of the door of the lodge, facing the direction of the coming of the Maiden. When she was at the door the chief stepped aside and made room for her to enter. She entered the lodge, went to the left of the door, and was seated at the place of honor.

The chief made a speech welcoming the Maiden as follows:
"My dear relatives, this day Waka'ntanka has again looked down and smiled upon us by sending us this young Maiden, whom we shall recognize and consider as a sister. She has come to our rescue just as we are in great need. Waka'ntanka wishes us to live. This day we lift up our eyes to the sun, the giver of light, that opens our eyes and gives us this beautiful day to see our visiting sister. Sister, we are glad that you have come to us, and trust that whatever message you have brought we may be able to abide by it. We are poor, but we have a great respect to visitors, especially relatives. It is our custom to serve our guests with some special food. We are at present needy and all we have to offer you is water, that falls from the clouds. Take it, drink it, and remember that we are very poor."

Then braided sweetgrass was dipped into a buffalo horn containing rain water and was offered to the Maiden. The chief said, "Sister, we are now ready to hear the message you have brought." The pipe which was in the hands of the Maiden, was lowered and placed on the rack. Then the Maiden sipped the water from the sweetgrass.

Then, taking up the pipe again, she arose and said:
"My relatives, brothers and sisters, Waka'ntanka has looked down, and smiles upon us this day because we have met as belonging to one family. The best thing in a family is a good feeling toward every member of the family. I am proud to become a member of your family-a sister to you all. The sun is your grandfather, and he is the same to me. Your tribe has the distinction of being always very faithful to promises, and of possessing great respect and reverence toward sacred things. It is known also that nothing but good feeling prevails in the tribe, and that whenever any member has been found guilty of committing any wrong, that member has been cast out and not allowed to mingle with the other members of the tribe. For all these good qualities in the tribe you have been chosen as worthy and deserving of all good gifts. I represent the Buffalo tribe, who have sent you this pipe. You are to receive this pipe in the name of all the common people. Take it, and use it according to my directions. The bowl of the pipe is red stone-a stone not very common and found only at a certain place. This pipe shall be used as a peacemaker. The time will come when you shall cease hostilities against other nations. Whenever peace is agreed upon between two tribes or parties, this pipe shall be a binding instrument. By this pipe the medicine-men shall be called to administer help to the sick."

Turning to the women, she said:
"My dear sisters, the women, you have a hard life to live in this world, yet without you this life would not be what it is. Waka'ntanka intends that you shall bear much sorrow-comfort others in time of sorrow. By your hands the family moves. You have been given the knowledge of making clothing and of feeding the family. Waka'ntanka is with you in your sorrows and joins you in your griefs. He has given you the great gift of kindness toward every living creature on earth. You he has chosen to have a feeling for the dead who are gone. He knows that you remember the deadlonger than do the men. He knows that you love your children dearly."

Then turning to the children:
"My little brothers and sisters, your parents were once little children like you, but in the course of time they became men and women. All living creatures were once small, but if no one took care of them they would never grow up. Your parents love you and have made many sacrifices for your sake in order that Waka'ntanka may listen to them, and that nothing but good may come to you as you grow up. I have brought this pipe for them, and you shall reap some benefit from it. Learn to respect and reverence this pipe, and above all, lead pure lives. Waka'ntanka is your great grandfather."

Turning to the men:
"Now my dear brothers, in giving you this pipe you are expected to use it for nothing but good purposes. The tribe as a whole shall depend upon it for their necessary needs. You realize that all your necessities of life come from the earth below, the sky above, and the four winds. Whenever you do anything wrong against these elements they will always take some revenge upon you. You should reverence them. Offer sacrifices through this pipe. When you are in need of buffalo meat, smoke this pipe and ask for what you need and it shall be granted you. On you it depends to be a strong help to the women in the raising of children. Share the women's sorrow. Waka'ntanka smiles on the man who has a kind feeling for a woman, because the woman is weak. Take this pipe, and offer it to Waka'ntanka daily. Be good and kind to the little children."

Turning to the chief:
"My older brother, you have been chosen by these people to receive this pipe in the name of the whole Sioux tribe. Waka'ntanka is pleased and glad this day because you have done what it is required and expected that every good leader should do. By this pipe the tribe shall live. It is your duty to see that this pipe is respected and reverenced. I am proud to be called a sister. May Waka'ntanka look down on us and take pity on us and provide us with what we need. Now we shall smoke the pipe."

Then she took the glowing buffalo chip which lay on the ground, lighted the pipe, and pointing to the sky with the stem of the pipe she said, "I offer this to Waka'ntanka for all the good that comes from above." Pointing to the earth, "I offer this to the earth, whence come all good gifts." Pointing to the cardinal points, "I offer this to the four winds, whence come all good things." Then she took a puff of the pipe, passed it to the chief, and said, "Now my dear brothers and sisters, I have done the work for which I was sent here and now I will go, but I do not wish any escort. I only ask that the way be cleared before me."

Then, rising, she started, leaving the pipe with the chief, who ordered that the people be quiet until their sister was out of sight. She came out of the tent on the left side, walking very slowly, as soon as she was outside the entrance she turned into a white buffalo calf.


Taken from:
Teton Sioux Music. by Frances Densmore. Bulletin 61, Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., Government Printing Office, 1918. (pp. 63-66)


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Это один из хранителей Святой Трубки - Голова Вапити (Elk Head, родился в 1818, умер в 1916), также известный как Красные Волосы, получивший связку со Святой Трубкой от своего отца (фото Кёртиса):

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Лакотские имена.

Здесь я написал о том, как даётся следующее имя у Лакота (имею ввиду то имя, которое человек получает не при рождении), - это то, что переварил я сам из различных книг о Лакота и контактов с носителями культры Лакота. Подойду я к этому вопросу немного не с той стороны, с которой подходят учёные. И это будет кратко.

Есть 4 позиции получения имени, и все они от духов так или иначе:

1. Духи напрямую дают имя человеку, можно даже сказать, что имя само нашло человека. Сам человек это может и не понять. Это происходит на грани интуиции, как назвала бы это западноевропейская научная доктрина. То есть, говоря проще, тебе идёт видение, где духи тебе дают понять, что твоё имя такое-то. Чаще всего это происходит во сне, либо (что сильнее) идя по улице, в тебя, к примеру, врезается голубь и роняет перо, когда ты его поднимаешь, то вдруг осознаёшь, что ты не Вася или Петя, а имя тебе какой-нибудь Голубь. Очень редко, тебе идёт видение в прямом эфире, то есть вне церемоний и не во сне, но получать такое видение большая редкость. У обычных людей таких видений за всю жизнь не набирается и двух, а может и вообще ни одного. Только вичхаша-вакан получает много таких видений.

Как вариант этого пункта, можно рассмотреть церемонию Ханблечейа, или Поиска Видений, когда духи называют человека во время этого ритуала, т. е. он получает необходимое видение, но здесь нужна помощь вичхаша-вакан(а).

2. Имя человеку дают на специальных церемониях, которые Лакота называют castun, буквально - родить имя. Честно говоря, я имею мало информации об этом, но, я думаю, такие церемонии проводятся, если долго не «срабатывает» первый пункт, и нет результата от 3 и 4 пункта. Такой ритуал имеет право проводить только вичхаша-вакан, он обращается за помощью к духам, и те дают человеку имя, чаще всего дух, дающий имя если верить святому мужу Множеству Волков, является одним из аспектов Инктоми, с которым имеет тесную связь вичхаша-вакан на ритуале. Короче, духи дают имя (например) Петрову, через посредника – вичхаша-вакан(а), потому что Петров, сам не в состоянии получить видение о имени.

Также это может быть на Иникага или Танце Солнца.

3. Имя даёт человеку более старший человек, например отец или старейшина (как было с Неистовым Конём). В этом случае такой человек выполняет функцию вичхаша-вакан(а) как в пункте №2. Но, он может сам не догадываться, что имя идёт от духов, ему вдруг показалось, что тебе подходит вот это имя, и он тебя называет, хотя это «показалось» исходит на самом деле от духов.
Также может быть зависить от поступков, которые совершает будущий носитель имени, эти поступки побуждают старшего понять имя для "кандидата" от духов.

4. Имя даёт человеку группа людей, например совет племени либо что-то подобное. Тоже самое, что и в пункте № 3, только вместо одного человека, здесь группа людей.

Есть ещё имена, которые даются при рождении, чаще всего они со временем уходят на второй план, но иногда остаются, это редко бывает, и свидетельствует об очень сильном потенциале, повлиявшем на рождении имени, а также гворит о том, что духи опекают носителя имени очень сильно. Как прмиер - вождь Красное Облако, который был так назван, потому что родился в год, когда Лакота видели огненный метеор (ссылаюсь на Г.Маллери).


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Как всегда, мнения у ЛАкота насчёт Уолкера разделяются.
Одни гворят - что всё, что написано - правильно, точнее это понимание респондентов Уолкера, которое не противоречит и и поддерживает современнные духовные пути.
Другие говорят, что там написана ерунда, правда в последнем случае объяснений не дали, сославшишь на другого человека.
Один заявил, что не верит уолкеру, т.к. где-то читал (у нейтива), что было не СЕмь Очагов, а восемь, восьмой "очаг" был якобы группой метисов, которые в 1860 году были по численности даже больше самой маленькой группы "чистокровных" Лакота. .... :o
Считаю, что эта информация сущая чепуха! ... :smile:


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2006: A year in Review
The Lakota Country Times
http://www.lakotacountrytimes.com/

MARTIN, SD - 2006 was a year filled with stories as reported by the Lakota Country Times that were sometimes inspirational and other times quite memorable. Some dealt with tribal politics, others with loss, and others with resilience of Lakota people, while others focused and highlighted some of the real achievers in Lakota country.

Oglala Sioux Tribal President Cecilia Fire Thunder was reinstated after being suspended for 66 days. The OST council voted 12-5 and with one not voting to dismiss with prejudice all charges. She was reinstated with all of the powers and authority of the president's office. Fire Thunder was originally suspended on Oct. 25 and a couple of hearings were re-scheduled until December 30 due to the death of executive director, Lemoyne Pulliam.

U. S. Marine Lance Corporal Brett Lundstrom was killed while on patrol in Iraq. He served with E Company, 2d Battalion of the 6th Marines. He and two other Marines were on patrol when attacked by small arms attack in Anbar Province near Fallujah, Iraq on Sunday, January 8. A large military funeral was held at the Little Wound School gym. Lundstrom is the son of Doyla (Under Baggage) Lundstrom of Medicine Root District.

The Rosebud Sioux Tribal Council passed a resolution on Jan. 11 asking for the Inspector General to investigate the actions of the previous administration at the Rosebud Comprehensive Care Facility. Shelly Harris the current CEO was working hard to bring patients back to the hospital, increasing third party billing and filling vacancies vital to good service delivery.

Sueann Iron Shell originally from the Rosebud was scheduled for a kidney transplant at the University of Nebreska at Omaha on Feb. 1. Her father, Calvin Iron Shell, Sr. was taking a very proactive role in informing the people of the devastating effects of diabetes. At the time, Calvin, Jr. had matched close enough for the transplant.

In January 2006, Calvin Iron Shell, Sr. died in Sioux City, IA and wake services were scheduled for January 3 at the SGU multipurpose building. He was an accomplished basketball coach at St. Francis Indian School, a holder of a teaching degree at the Bachelor's level and an airborne trooper from 1951-54.

Tribal gaming became an issue on state level. The South Dakota Senate Affairs Committee sponsored SB 147 described as an "Act to revise the conditions under which the state may enter into gaming compacts with Indian tribes. The measure was viewed as controversial to all of the Sioux tribes as it would allow legislative oversight of the process which is reserved for the Governor. The measure made it out of the Senate subcommittee and was scheduled for full Senate debate and then on to the House.

SB 147 was effectively "killed" by the House State Affairs Committee. It was voted against 13-0 and referred to the 36th legislative day. The measure would have effectively taken this function of the Governor and was opposed by Kurt Luger of the SD Great Plains Indian Gaming, Marc Allen, Flandreau Sioux Tribe, Rep. Paul Valandra and Ron His Horse Is Thunder of the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe.

The 33rd annual walk to remember the occupation of Wounded Knee by the American Indian Movement was held on Monday, Feb. 7 as walkers converged from the four directions. Some 100 walkers remembered Dave Clifford, Edgar Bear Runner, Geraldine Janis, Evie Deon, Cedric Young Bear according to Eileen Janis. The site of the 1973 takeover is also the site of the Wounded Knee Massacre.

In a listening session with Senator Tim Johnson held in Rapid City in which the Senator outlined his Hometown Prosperity Plan, tribal leaders who met with him included Rodney Bordeaux, RST, Cecilia Fire Thunder, OST, Michael Jandreau of the Lower Brule Sioux Tribe, Harold Frazier of the Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe, and Robert Cournoyer of the Yankton Sioux tribe. Bordeaux noted that $185 million comes into the Rosebud reservation and 80 percent of it leaves. On the Pine Ridge reservation Fire Thunder said that some $200 million comes into the reservation and $180 million leaves almost immediately for Rapid City and surrounding towns. The session coincided with Johnson's hometown economic development plan.

Sicangu elder, Dinah Crow Dog, made her journey to the spirit world on Feb. 27. Wake services were held over the course of four days. She lay in state at the RST council chambers and on the last night, she was taken to her home in Grass Mountain community close to Crow Dog's Paradise where the annual sun dance is held in August. Officiating were Leonard Crow Dog, Kirk Fool Bull and Ben Black Bear, Jr.

The Little Wound School Mustangs participated in the State A basketball tournament and won their third game over Sisseton to capture 7th place by a score of 74-58. Michael Apple led the way in the fourth period with eight points, while Bryce Hornbeck finished the game with 15 points, 7 rebounds, 5 steals and 5 assists.

OST President Cecilia Fire Thunder held a teleconference in which she demonstrated her support for building an abortion clinic on the Pine Ridge reservation. The state of South Dakota passed SB 1215 banning all abortions in the state. Fire Thunder reiterated that she would donate her own personal land to establish an abortion clinic and that it was in the planning process. She said she had support across the reservation.

A "State of Emergency" at the Rosebud I.H.S. Hospital was declared by the RST council with a motion by RST council representative Marion Young-One Star and seconded by Antelope council representative, Robert Moore. The measure passed unanimously by a vote of 16-0. It would signal the need for more funding from the Indian Health Service. CEO Shelly Harris made a scheduled monthly report to the RST council and was making positive steps toward reducing the deficit.

The U. S. Court of Appeals reinstated the case of Cottier and Three Stars v. the City of Martin in which the plaintiffs alleged that the city was drawing voting districts which violated the voting rights of Native Americans living in the city. The case was ruled upon by 2-1 in which the court required Judge Karen Schrier to hold additional hearings to see if city voting districts should be redrawn. Schrier eventually ruled for the city of Martin to redraw voting districts, citing voting rights violations.

KILI Radio was struck by lightning on April 15 and it caused the station to go off the air. The antenna and transmission line were damaged and it was estimated that it would take $210,000 to replace the equipment. Station manager, Melanie Janis, said that they were doing fundraising and that a grant proposal would be submitted to the Public Telecommunications Facilities Program. Funding eventually became available to purchase the much needed equipment and early 2007 has been set to be back on air. The loss of the radio station has been felt throughout the Oglala Sioux Tribal election controversy, sports, and announcements.

The recent suicide deaths of seven young people on the Rosebud reservation prompted RST council representative, Marion Young-One Star, to call a meeting which called for therapists, the youth and concerned tribal members. The meeting was attended by Angel Wilson,
Claude Two Elk, Lloyd "Sonny" One Star, Claudette Sabors and a number of youth. A second day of meetings was to be held with elders from the Sicangu Elderly Concerns.

Mary Bordeaux-Hunger celebrated her 100th birthday at the Winner Health Care facility. The Sicangu elder received congratulations from President George Bush and Governor Mike Rounds. RST President sent an Executive Proclamation as well as a letter which from Bishop Cupich which was read. Hunger lived in Mission since 1940 and was active in the St. Thomas Catholic Church.

Oglala Lakota College celebrates with its 33rd graduation ceremonies on Sunday, June 23. Representative Stephanie Herseth was the keynote speaker while 159 degrees were awarded; eight were at the graduate level. During fall, OLC announced plans to build a large tribal veterans memorial, which will be unveiled during the 2007 graduation.

Alex White Plume assumed the office of OST President after Cecilia Fire Thunder was impeached, ending her term five months early. As the first woman to head the Oglala Sioux tribe, her administration lasted for 19 months and ended on June 19. Her impeachment was due to her support of a proposed abortion clinic on the reservation.

On July 14, Judge Karen Schrier granted a preliminary injunction halting the BIA's planned restructuring of its Office of Indian Education. The injunction halted the closing of education line offices in Mission, Eagle Butte, Lower Brule, Pine Ridge and Ft. Yates and Belcourt in N.D. Attorney Charles Abourezk was the lead attorney for the plaintiffs.

Six former students filed a suit against the St. Francis Mission and the Rapid City Diocese on August 7 in Pennington County. The plaintiffs were represented by attorney Gregory Yates of California and they alleged a pattern of MAPS abuse and attempts to destroy native culture. The abuse was alleged to have taken place in the 1950's and 1970's by priests and other church employees.

James and Eleanor Charging Crow have been married for 54 years and were involved with the Pine Ridge Ambulance service for 40 years. Eleanor described a night in 1995 during which her son had chest pains and she had to assist in getting him to the hospital. She helped to give him CPR all the way with another paramedic. Her son did not make it and died in her arms leaving four children behind.

Vietnam Veteran and Lakota language teacher, John Around Him, Sr. journeyed to the spirit world after a brief illness. A sun dance leader and 'eyapaha' in Lakota country, Around Him had been honored earlier at OLC's He Sapa college center with a proclamation from the Office of the Governor. The funeral was huge often pouring out into the parking lot as Lakota people from other bands came to bid goodbye.

A treaty meeting was held at the Rosebud MAPS during which the fundraising activities of the Wolakota Foundation of Eagle Butte was questioned. It was a forum for grass roots people. Some 100 people were in attendance at the meeting on Oct. 21. People voiced their concern and alleged the scared bundle was being used to raise money.

St. Francis Mission filed a suit in Rosebud Sioux Tribal court on Nov. 9 against St. Francis Indian School over a $1.5 million gift which it received from the Delores Cerro Trust. The basis for the legal action was an agreement from 25 years previous which was to have governed the receipts of such gifts. SFM contends that the gift should have gone to them.

In November elections, Cheyenne River Sioux tribal president, Harold Frazier, was defeated by Joseph Brings Plenty. In state elections, voters sent Rep. Stephanie Herseth back to Washington, DC, while Mike Rounds defeated Jack Billion for governor. Larry Long defeated Standing Rock Sioux tribal member, Ron Volesky, for the office of Attorney General.

In the state house and senate races, Julie Barling, Larry Lucas, Jim Bradford, Thomas Van Norman, Theresa Two Bulls and Tom Katus were victorious.
Voters in South Dakota turned down Amendment C relating to judicial accountability. Initiated measure 2 which increases the tax on tobacco and cigarettes by $1 was approved. Measure 3 which would have prohibited schools from starting before August 31 was defeated. Initiated measure 4 which would have approved the use of medical marijuana was also defeated, while measure 5 which limits the use of state aircraft was approved.
The video lottery measure which would have repealed it was turned down by voters. Initiated Measure 8 would have repealed the gross receipt tax on wireless communication, while Referred Law 6 which would have placed a ban on all abortions was defeated.

Collin White Bird of Pierre was wounded in Iraq on August 31 in Baghdad and was expected to make a full recovery. White Bird's father Francis is a Vietnam Veteran from St. Francis. Meanwhile, Nathan Goodiron of Mandaree, ND was killed in Afghanistan on Thanksgiving while on patrol. He enlisted in the National Guard in April 2001.

John Steele and 16 tribal council representatives were sworn in by Sidney Witt, associate tribal judge. Vice President Shorty Brewer and Chief Judge Lisa Adams were also sworn in. Executive board members Crystal Eagle Elk, Rhonda Two Eagle and Dave Pourier were also temporarily seated as executive board.

RST received a loan and grant package of $4 million from the Shakopee Mdewankanton Sioux to build a tribal store west of Mission. The store would begin construction in December and is scheduled to open in July and will employ 80 tribal employees.

U. S. Senator Tim Johnson underwent surgery on December 13 for a rare condition known as arteriovenous malformation. RST President Rodney M. Bordeaux and OST President John Steele voiced their support for the Senator.


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Я, Я, Я, Я - как много в этом звуке!!!! .... :???:

Вот ещё один "Я-ист", святым себя называет.

Очень интересный монолог. Особенно вторая половина. Видимо он плохо на английском говорил, но всё-таки толика святого таинственного пробивается среди строк, даже несмотря на двойной перевод: Лакота-английский-русский. .... :???:
_____________________________________________________________

37. Я – Вичхаша Вакхан. Красный Ястреб. (CHS)

Я вичхаша вакхан, и я знаю Вачхипи Вакхан. Я знаю Вакхан Ийа, Эчхунпи, и Лованпи [речь Вакхан, действия и песни]. Я воин и могу носить расщеплённое орлиное перо. Я святой муж и знаю Медвежью магию. Хунунпа пришёл ко мне, когда я ханблапи. Он приходил ко мне много раз. Он дал мне мудрость. Он рассказал мне о Лакота.

Мой Хунка Атэ, был мудрым человеком. Он знал все истории Лакота. Все люди слушали его, и он рассказал много историй. Он мог говорить с нагипи из мест вне сосен. Я говорил с ними.

Моя магия хороша. Это очень хорошо на войне. У меня было откровение от Ви. Есть шрамы. Ни один человек не оспорит то, что я говорю. Я – Лакота. Лакота превосходят всех других людей. Всё остальное человечество было создано раньше, чем Лакота, а Лакота были созданы последними. Мой Хунка Атэ, был моим кхола. Он рассказал мне об этом. А до этого сказали ему. Когда я умру, я пойду в страну нагипи. Наги моего врага ждёт, чтобы пойти со мной. Я говорил с ним.

Когда я танцевал Вачхипи Вакхан, они сказали мне об этом. Тхункашила выбрал хорошую женщину. Он выбрал хорошего мужчину. Он поместил их в центр мира. Их детьми были Лакота. Когда Лакота появились среди других народов, Вакханла боялся их. Тхункаши рассказал народу Лакота, как общаться с Таку Вакхан. Он обучил их церемониям и песням. Он находился среди них подобно мудрому старцу. Когда он обучил их Вакхан Вачхипи, он ушел, и ни один человек не видел его с тех пор. Эти песни я пою. Я говорю с его акичита.


Source: Walker J. R. - "Lakota Belief and Ritual"


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Пожалуйста, помогите разобраться в "структуре" Лакота... :roll:

Правильно ли я понимаю, что:
Языковая группа Сиу делится на три диалекта: восточный - Дакота (Santee), центральный - Накота (Yankton), западный Лакота (Teton).
Дальше, каждый из этих народов делятся на группы как указанно в этой статье - http://www.lakota-indians.narod.ru/Division.html (переписывать сюда нет смысла).

Вопрос 1: как называются эти "образования" (подгруппы) Mdewakantonwan, Wahpekute, Oglala и т.д Что это племена, семьи...?
Вопрос 2: На какой-то карте я видела такие подписи: №... - восточные дакота (санти); №... западные дакота (тетон). Насколько это правильно? Ведь Teton - это Лакота....
Вопрос 3: Правомерно ли называть всю языковую группу Сиу - народом Лакота?
Вопрос 4: Какие племена говорят на этих трех диалектах (в частности на Лакота)?

Заранее извиняюсь за свою средневековую темноту. :oops:


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Заранее извиняюсь за свою средневековую темноту.


Не надо извиняться, мы все такими были, а в каких-то вопросах и до сих пор.... :smile:

Цитата:
Языковая группа Сиу делится на три диалекта: восточный - Дакота (Santee), центральный - Накота (Yankton), западный Лакота (Teton).


Официально принято так, это связано с географическим положением подразделений в первой пловине 19-го века.

Цитата:
Вопрос 1: как называются эти "образования" (подгруппы) Mdewakantonwan, Wahpekute, Oglala и т.д Что это племена, семьи...?


Лакота называли свои подгруппы как "тхиошпайе", в научной среде приянто отождествлять это слово с фразой "расширенная семейная община". Из "тхиошпайе" состояли бэнды (группы): вот эти самые Оглала, Брюле и т.д.

Цитата:
Вопрос 2: На какой-то карте я видела такие подписи: №... - восточные дакота (санти); №... западные дакота (тетон). Насколько это правильно? Ведь Teton - это Лакота....


Это правда, но не полностью. Дело в том, что в 19 - начале 20-го века, в научной среде "сиу" чаще всего назывались как Дакота, это стереотипное слово сейчас перекочёвывает в основном по разным справочникам, например в "Оксфордской энциклопедии" (Сиу = Дакота).
Сами индейцы, называют себя как Лакота, Дакота, Янктон и Янктонаи (Накота), согласно своей принадлежности к этим группам, название "сиу" по отношении к себе тоже не используют, либо используют, но редко.
Общий термин для всех 4-ех подразделений у них либо "Очхети Шаковин" (Семь очегов), либо Великая Нация Сиу (это официальное название).

Цитата:
Вопрос 3: Правомерно ли называть всю языковую группу Сиу - народом Лакота?


Не думаю, что это будет правильно, т.к. в языковую группу Сиу помимо ЛДН, входят ещё Понка, Ассинибойны и др. народы.

Цитата:
Вопрос 4: Какие племена говорят на этих трех диалектах (в частности на Лакота)?


На Лакота соотв. говорят только Лакота (ака Тхитон): [1]Мникховонжу (ака Миннеконжу), [2]Оглала, [3]Брюле (ака Сичангу), [4]Сихасапа, [5]Хункпапха, [6]Итазипчо (ака Санс Арк), [7]Оохенунпа.


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